There are two broad categories of sampling technologies, each meeting a specific set of needs in the field:
High Volume Sampling – For many regional monitoring or TMDL programs, there is a need to detect low concentrations of contaminants by using large volumes of water concentrated on sampling media. Reliable data, from both dissolved and particulate bound phase, are necessary to support mass balance models.
Passive Sampling – As understanding of contaminants evolve, contaminated site investigations and responsible parties projects increasingly involve understanding the specific amount of contaminant available for uptake to the organism, represented by the dissolved fraction, as the particulate phase is not available.
Industry, governments, and researchers are seeking economic and practical ways to get appropriate data from field sampling, and sampling device developers continue to respond to meet these needs.
AXYS works with these sampling technologies to maximize the amount and quality of data produced. AXYS helps our clients from planning through to project execution and data interpretation with these new innovations — starting with selecting the correct sampling device to optimize the extraction and research analysis to meet your needs. AXYS has validated procedures specific to each sampling device for isolating and analyzing contaminants. We can extract the sample from the media in a way that allows us to collect a large range of analytes and then apply validated analytical methods tailored for our clients’ applications. We use our experience to cost-effectively analyze samples for multiple chemical groups from the same sample.
AXYS is one of the few labs with experience with all available high-volume and passive sampling tools. AXYS has extensive experience with sampling media for POP and CEC projects, including with high-volume, medium-volume and passive sampling media. AXYS can provide support during all stages of your passive or high-volume sampling project, from project planning to data delivery, including:
- Guidance on which type of media is appropriate for different analyte classes
- Aid with the selection and determination of spiking levels for Performance Reference Compounds (PRC)
- Media Preparation to ensure media is free of measurable contamination before going to the field
- Media extraction and analysis to ensure that the data is repeatable, reliable and free from lab artifacts
AXYS’ unique co-extraction techniques allow for multiple targets to be analyzed from one sample, without sacrificing detection limits through chemical fractionation. This can significantly decrease sampling time and costs for high-volume and passive sampling projects.
AXYS has some of the most extensive high-volume and passive sampling analyses experience worldwide, with a wide variety of tools available to meet your specific sampling needs:prevnext
POCIS is a passive sampler that collects dissolved contaminants from aqueous environments and can be deployed for weeks or months. Suitable for polar and hydrophilic compounds. AXYS has also been approved by EST labs (the manufacturer of POCIS) since 2009 to conduct the dialysis/elution of the media.
SPMD is a passive sampler that collects dissolved contaminants from aqueous environments and can be deployed for days or months. Suitable for monitoring non-polar or hydrophobic compounds. AXYS has also been approved by EST labs (the manufacturer of SPMD) since 2009 to conduct the dialysis/elution of the media.
PED refers to a range of polyethylene samplers which are essentially a piece of plastic that, when immersed in an aqueous medium, acts as a membrane and collects contaminants from the water. Tests include PCB, PBDE, BPA, and Alkylphenols.
High volume samples are collected in the field using a pump. Filters are used to collect the particulate phase and XAD-2 resin is used to collect the dissolved non-polar organic compounds such as PCB, PAH, OC Pesticides, DX/F and PBDEs.
Medium volume samples are typically collected in the field using large canisters. They are then transported to AXYS for processing into a dissolved and particulate phase, similar to the procedure done for high volume samples. The resulting media can be analyzed for non-polar organic compounds such as PCB, PAH, OC Pesticides, DX/F and PBDEs.
Products are emerging that provide submersible extraction samplers using solid phase extraction to collect contaminants from aqueous environments. Depending on the solution, the extract can be split to allow monitoring of both polar and non-polar analytes from the same sample such as PCB, PBDE, PAH, BPA, and Alkylphenols.
Spokane River Regional Toxic Task Force
This Regional organization is focused on PCBs measurement and reduction in the Spokane River. Multiple projects, conducted by SRRTTF, State of Washington, plus a variety of municipal and industry members, have been completed or are underway. Key task include completing a hydrological modelling and PCB mass balance / assessment of the river for all environmental matrices, source investigations, and use of active and passive sampling media to meet the very low level objectives SRRTTF. AXYS provides a variety of analytical options featuring very low detection limits coupled with best in class blank level control. .
Ontario Ministry of Environment Leverages POCIS Sampling Devices
Since in 2011, this multi-year survey of PPCPs and hormones in the Great Lakes required integrated passive sample to establish a baseline of occurrence . POCIS samples deployed were eluted and analyzed by AXYS methods. Elution methods are aligned with EST Laboratories procedures. AXYS was the only commercial lab with methods and experience to provide the necessary analysis for a comprehensive list of PPCPs from POCIS samplers.
San Francisco Estuary Institute Leverages High Volume Sampling in their TMDL Regional Monitoring Program
AXYS has provided analysis of high-volume (XAD-2 and filter) samples for PCBs, Dioxin/Furans, OC Pesticides, PBDEs, and PAHs annually since 2002, and will continue providing support for this monitoring now every four years.
Environment Canada (Pacific Reigion)-Fraser River
AXYS provided XAD-2 and filter analysis for PCB Congeners, Dioxins and Furans, PBDEs, OC Pesticides. Other analysis at various times for this program has included Current Use Pesticides by HRMS in Water and Sediments, Glyphosate in Water by LC-MS/MS, Acid Extractable Herbicides in Water and Sediments by HRMS, and Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCP) by LC-MS/MS.
AXYS Innovates to Support Oil Sands Monitoring
Alberta Environment needed to establish baseline conditions for water in Northern Alberta in pristine and oil sands producing areas. AXYS analyzed 240 SPMD samples for PAH and alkylated PAH analysis and 240 POCIS samples for Naphthenic Acids. This study produced data suitable for temporal and geographic tracking and fingerprinting of the PAH, alkylated PAH and naphthenic acids in environmental samples.